The most important thing for a puppy is to have as many varied interactions as possible, including meeting people of all ages, exploring new environments, and interacting with other well-socialized dogs.

Achieving this will set them up for a happy, healthy life. Failing to do so can set them up for serious behavioral issues, and perhaps having to find another home.

The first four to 12 weeks of a puppy’s life are what’s known as their critical socialization period, where experiences, be they positive or negative, impact and shape who they will become.

During this critical period, exposing a puppy to safe, varied, and positive experiences is key to ensuring that you have a confident and healthy-minded adult dog in the future.

Failure to socialize your puppy can lead to lasting impacts on both the dog and owner, leading to behavioral issues in the canine including fear, avoidance, or aggression.

Socialization begins as early as 2 weeks of age, where puppies should start to experience mild stress by holding them, turning their bodies, or varying the temperature.

By 3 to 4 weeks, they start to interact with their litter mates and learn the importance of bite inhibition, which is a dog’s ability to control the amount of pressure exerted when biting.

Good bite inhibition is developed by receiving consistent and immediate feedback. Puppies naturally teach each other to control how hard they bite by ceasing play if another dog bites too hard. In that moment, rough players learn that if they want play to continue, they have to soften their bite.

During the critical socialization period, new experiences are essential! Many people may think that socializing their puppy with their other dogs in the household is enough, but it is not. It is important for the puppy to meet other dogs outside of the home to ensure new and varied experiences.

The key to socialization is controlled interactions to set your pup up for success. Finding one dog at a time for your dog to play with outside of the home is a good idea as long as the other dog is well socialized and can give good cues to your pup to teach positive social interactions.

During the critical period, make sure all interactions are either neutral or positive. Negative experiences are detrimental and can be challenging to come back from later in the dog’s life.

Let your dog gradually experience the world around them, taking on new situations with mild stress that they can easily recover from is healthy. But forcing a stressful situation will lead to negative effects.

Expose your puppy to a variety of sights, sounds, smells, and environments, remembering that your dog is seeing and experiencing the world around them for the first time, with each interaction shaping how they will see the world.

Kristina O’Keefe of North Attleboro blogs at to promote the status of animals in society.

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